Heavy Metals Accumulation and Their Toxic Effects: Review

Qaiser Jamal, Palwasha Durani, Kamran Khan, Shahzad Munir, Saadat Hussain, Kiran Munir, Muhammad Anees

Abstract


Pollution caused by heavy metals affects all forms of life. Pakistan is an agricultural country. The soil of Pakistan is rated low in fertility to fulfill our economic demand. Due to the lack of awareness in farmers, fields are irrigated by agricultural land disposals, mineral, industrial wastes and use of fertilizer. Areas especially Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad, Lahore, Sheikhpora, Kala Shah Kaku, Multan,Kallarkahar, Kalarkahar-Lilla and Lilla-Lahore, Peshawar, Mardan, Sawabi, Nowshera, Charasda, Khyber agency, Kohat, and Karak are contaminated through industrial contamination, fertilizer, automobile,mining and natural constituents of the soil. Toxic levels of heavy metal contamination pose a serious threat to the microorganisms, animal plants and human life. Plants exposed to heavy metals result injury in terms of chlorosis along with toxic effects in the form of reduced photosynthesis, browning of root tips, growth inhibition, and finally death.Soil microbial population is highly affected by the presence of heavy metals. In human and mammals, neurological damage, immune system suppression and fetal abnormalities are reported due to the toxic effects of heavy metals. Live stock affected due to toxicity of heavy metals enters into the food chain can cause serious economic and health issue.


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ISSN: 2311-4630

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